What is Yoga?
Definition, Types, Purpose and Benefits of Yoga
Yoga is a science that explains the connection between physical, mental, and spiritual human beings to achieve a holistic health system formed from ancient Indian culture. Yoga was first introduced in the Yoga Sutras book written by Patanjali, a legendary figure from India who lived around 200 to 500 BC (Sindhu, 2014: 30).
The term Yoga comes from the ancient Sanskrit language yuj which means union or self-union. Yoga has three different meanings, namely: Absorption (samadhi (yujyate), connecting (yunakti), and control (yojyanti), but the key meaning commonly used is meditation (dhyana) and unification (yukti).
Yoga is a union between the spiritual soul and the universal soul or the limitation of thoughts that are always moving or a systematic system of spiritual practice to achieve inner peace and physical exercise to achieve physical and spiritual health so it is called Jiwan Mukti.
Types of Yoga
According to Giri (2006), based on Hindu Yoga religious literature is classified into several types, namely:
a. Hatha Yoga
Hatha Yoga is a training system that uses various techniques to form a posture (asana) accompanied by breathing techniques (pranayama) to achieve a balance between two different forces in the body, such as the upper body and lower body, left body and body the right, breathing and breathing, positive and negative energy, and so on.
b. Bhakti Yoga
Bhakti yoga is yoga that focuses on the heart. If a meditator succeeds in applying it, then he will be able to see the strengths of others and how to deal with things. The success of yoga also makes Yogis more compassionate and accepts everything around him, because in yoga this is taught to love nature and have faith in God.
c. Raja Yoga
Raja Yoga is yoga that focuses on meditation and contemplation techniques. This yoga will eventually lead to self-mastery as well as respect for yourself and the surroundings. Raja yoga is the basis of sutra yoga.
d. Jnana Yoga
Jnana Yoga is yoga that applies methods to gain wisdom and knowledge. This technique tends to combine intelligence and wisdom, so that later they will get a life that can accept all philosophies and religions.
e. Karma Yoga
Karma Yoga is yoga that believes in reincarnation. Here you will be made to be unselfish, because you believe that your current behavior will affect the life to come.
f. Tantra Yoga
Tantra Yoga is yoga that is slightly different from other yoga, some even consider it similar to sorcery. The technique in yoga consists of truth (truth) and mystical things (mantra). The purpose of this technique is to be able to appreciate learning and life experiences.
According to Somvir (2006), yoga that developed in the community there are several types, namely as follows:
Ananda Yoga. Ananda yoga is focused on gentle postures designed to transfer energy to the brain and prepare the body for meditation. Ananda Yoga focuses on proper body alignment and controlled breathing.
Iyengar Yoga. Iyengar Yoga is suitable for people who prefer the precision and mechanics of the body over body movements. This type prefers the preparation of perfect movements through alignment techniques or alignment at high precision to achieve maximum health benefits.
Kundalini Yoga. Kundalini Yoga combines repetitive movements, breathing exercises, hymns, and meditation to build spiritual energy that is said to lie at the base of the human body (or human pelvic floor). Every kundalini training session has certain goals, such as building the immune system.
Bikram Yoga. This yoga practice is carried out in a heated room between 36 to 42 degrees Celsius to stimulate the body to release toxins through sweat and help stretch the body even further. Each exercise consists of two pranayama techniques and 24 types of asanas.
Ashtanga Yoga. Ashtanga Yoga is the name given to the yoga system taught by Sri K. Pattabhi Jois. The style of Ashtanga yoga demands physical strength because it involves synchronizing breathing with progressive series. Ashtanga yoga can improve circulation, flexibility, stamina, strong mystic light, and calm mind.
Jivamukti Yoga. Jivamukti yoga was developed in 1986 by Sharon Gannon and David Life. The Jivamukti yoga method reveals the spiritual and ethical aspects of yoga practice. Jivamukti Yoga is a form of strong asanas with an emphasis on religious studies, sanskrit songs, vegetarianism, non-violence, meditation, devotion to God.
Sivananda Yoga. This type of yoga is suitable for those who want yoga practice that includes physical movements and devotion to yoga or yoga that prioritizes devotion. Each exercise includes pranayamna, asanas, and relaxation exercises.
Kripalu Yoga. Kripalu is yoga that aims to increase awareness. Emphasizing awareness of breathing, movement and straightness, kripalu is a sign of wisdom regarding the body's services. This style also encourages yoga students to respect the boundaries concerning the body.
Meditation of Yoga. Yoga meditation is yoga that is done with relaxation which involves emptying the mind of all things that are interesting, burdensome, or worrying in our daily lives The literal meaning of meditation is an activity of understanding the mind, thinking, pondering.
Prenatal Yoga. Prenatal Yoga is a special yoga program for pregnancy with techniques and intensities that have been adjusted to the physical and psychological needs of pregnant women and the fetus in their womb. This program emphasizes the techniques of yoga posture, breathing, relaxation, visualization and meditation techniques that are useful as self-help media that will provide comfort, tranquility, as well as strengthen yourself during pregnancy.
Viniyoga. It is yoga that is used as a therapeutic practice for people who have suffered injuries or post surgery. Viniyoga has gentle movements, healing tailored to each person's body type and needs as they grow and change.
Acro Yoga. Understanding acro yoga is one type of yoga in which every movement that is carried out contains an acrobatic element.
The Purpose and Benefits of Yoga
The aim of Yoga is to extend human consciousness so far that it can be likened to the consciousness of the universe. This must be achieved by the realization of spiritual principles in our bodies, there are physical and mental principles and actually our true and eternal personality.
According to Sindhu (2014: 34), yoga has good benefits if done routinely and regularly, which is as follows:
Improve the work function of the endocrine (hormonal) glands in the body.
Promotes blood circulation to all cells of the body and brain.
Forming a firmer body posture, and muscles that are more flexible and stronger.
Increase lung capacity when breathing.
Remove toxins from the body (detoxification).
Rejuvenate body cells and slow down aging.
Purifies the central nerve found in the backbone.
Reduces body, mind, and mental tension, and makes it stronger when dealing with stress.
Provides an opportunity to feel deep relaxation.
Increase awareness of the environment.
Increases confidence and ability to think positively.